In 1993 the U.S. Department of Education funded some research which was named Project Target, a study designed primarily to develop a health-related and criterion-referenced physical fitness test protocol for youngsters with disabilities. The age group the study was based around was between 10 and 17 years of age. In total 1,542 youngsters with and without disabilities were tested, and the analysis of these results lead to the creation of the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. The name is derived from the project being centered at the State University of New York, College at Brockport.
The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, attributed to Nennius, which describes "a party of boys ... playing at ball". References to a ball game played in northern France known as La Soule or Choule, in which the ball was propelled by hands, feet, and sticks, date from the 12th century.
Association football has been played by women since at least the time of the first recorded women's games in the late 19th century. It has traditionally been associated with charity games and physical exercise, particularly in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, women's association football was organised in the United Kingdom, eventually becoming the most prominent team sport for British women.
There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulations and guidelines. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football for both sexes, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors and people with physical disabilities are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the IFAB. In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of association football. Within the United States, Major League Soccer used a distinct ruleset during the 1990s and the National Federation of State High School Associations and National Collegiate Athletic Association still use rulesets that are comparable to, but different from, the IFAB Laws.
Football Fans in Training (FFIT) is a gender-sensitised, weight management, physical activity and healthy eating programme developed for delivery to men through professional football clubs by community coaches trained to a standardized delivery protocol. Best practice guidance for intervention development and evaluation  has been followed, with iterative programme development and feasibility work being conducted prior to formal evaluation of 12 month weight loss in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The development and optimization of FFIT for delivery through football clubs in the Scottish Premier League (SPL), the top professional league in Scotland, is described elsewhere . The current paper presents the findings of the pilot randomized trial undertaken to assess the feasibility of the protocol for conducting the subsequent full RCT . The aims were: 1) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of recruiting men to a trial of a weight management programme delivered through professional football clubs; 2) to provide an estimate of participant retention to 12 months; and 3) to explore the potential of FFIT to help men lose weight, retain that weight loss to 12 months (primary outcome in the subsequent RCT) and make positive changes to self-reported lifestyle and psychological measures (secondary outcomes in the subsequent RCT).
The development, optimization and content of the FFIT programme is described in detail elsewhere . In brief, the pilot programme (p-FFIT) was designed to be delivered by SPL club community coaching staff (mostly male sessional or full time coaches, with a broad range of qualifications and experience, who were employed by professional football clubs to deliver community activities) to groups of 15 men over twelve, 90 minute, weekly sessions at club home stadia. Each session comprised: a) classroom-based education focusing on topics related to successful weight management, such as healthy eating, reducing alcohol consumption and increasing daily physical activity; and b) coach-led physical activity sessions where men received training in aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises tailored to individual fitness levels, abilities and pre-existing health conditions (for more detail, see ). Men also undertook a daily incremental pedometer-based walking programme  to help them achieve 45 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days of the week, as recommended by national weight management guidance [37, 38]. The dietary components were designed to deliver a 600 kcal/day deficit (from individual estimated daily energy requirements) [37, 38].
This pilot randomized trial was undertaken to assess the feasibility of conducting a fully-powered randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 12 month weight loss in the professional football club setting, and to inform the final design and research procedures for the full RCT. Specifically, it aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, randomization and measurement procedures, and to provide estimates of: retention to 12 months (in the intervention group only); weight loss at 12 weeks retained to 12 months; and changes in other physical biomarkers of health risk (e.g., waist circumference and BP) and self-reported lifestyle and psychological measures at 12 weeks and 12 months (secondary outcomes in the RCT). The results confirmed that recruitment and retention were adequate to proceed to the full RCT (with some modifications to planned recruitment strategies and research procedures) and that the intervention showed potential to support men in losing weight and making positive changes to other physical biomarkers of health risk, lifestyle behaviours and psychological outcomes.
Elite footballers must not just endure physically but also mentally. As the body fatigues, control, focus, and decision making becomes more and more difficult. The ability to perform both physically and mentally for more than 90 minutes is crucial to achieving success in football.
The spectrum of teaching styles were first designed by Mosston and Ashworth as they designed a cohesive framework to serve as a guide for physical education teachers. It consists of 11 different teaching styles, five teacher-centered (aka reproductive/direct) and six student-centered (aka productive/indirect). Collectively they allow for many approaches to teaching and learning such as behaviourist, cognitive, social constructivist, peer teaching, peer assessment, and self-assessment. In the table below all eleven teaching styles are categorized and described.
During the September 13, 2022 Finance & Faciities Board of Education Committee Meeting, Assistant Superintendent Jill Elliott gave an informative GLHS Construction and Floor Plan Update for the new Gahanna Lincoln High School.The three-story plan includes a 24% increase in square footage compared to our current high school. With dedicated wings for performing arts, academics and physical education/athletics the floor plan also includes flexible extended learning areas and a few areas to grab a bite to eat.
Extracurricular sports or after school athletic activities provide opportunities for children and adolescents to play soccer, tennis, baseball, softball, volleyball, football, basketball, and various other sports at beginner, intermediate, and competitive levels. Activities are offered at differing skill levels to encourage participation regardless of skill. Before and after school programs can also include physical activity components such as dance, fitness breaks, or physically active games, often as part of healthy out of school time initiatives. 2b1af7f3a8