To date, there is no endothecium-specific promoter known to drive transcription of the genes involved in the lignin pathway, and consequently, no suitable marker has been developed for the endothecium. To overcome this problem, we adopted a promoter swap strategy by taking advantage of the strong activity of the already available GUS gene promoter (UBIQUITIN 10 promoter from Arabidopsis). This promoter has been used extensively to drive transgenic reporter genes and express foreign genes in plants (Szymanski et al., 2007). The endothecium-specific promoter (e.g. the promoters of SND2, MYB46/83, and VND1/7) was inserted into the UBIQUITIN 10 promoter to generate endothecium-specific GUS gene fusion constructs (Wang et al., 2020a). These constructs were transformed into Arabidopsis for histochemical analysis. The results showed that the expressions of SND2, MYB46/83, and VND1/7 promoters (Figure 39) all drive the accumulation of β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the endothecium of anthers (Figure 40). The expression of these promoters may be regulated by different developmental cues, and these promoters may serve as useful tools for the detailed analysis of endothecium formation and its interaction with other tissues.
Control room enclosures can also be used to reduce noise levels in an office, laboratory, and other settings. These enclosures may be designed with a single- or double-wall enclosure, having a maximum sound transmission level (SEL) of 30 dB. One particular design feature of control room enclosures is that sound tends to diffuse through smaller windows and cracks in the wall.
Glass is used to make windows, skylights, and other enclosures for protecting workers. A typical window frame made of glass has a thickness of 1/2 inch. Soundproof glass panels, however, can be made with thicknesses as thin as 3/8 inch or less. The soundproofing of a window or skylight should be measured in decibels (dB) and is generally measured at a distance of 3 feet from the glass. On the other side of the glass, a decibel reading of 45 dB or less is appropriate for reducing worker noise exposure.
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One of the drawbacks to this approach was that we needed to recompile every time we made even a small change to the code. This slowed everything else we were doing down and because we couldn't always have someone waiting for the application to finish building. 827ec27edc